Size, shape, monodispersity and composition:
- Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Determination of the mass fractions of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S).
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR):
Molecular structure determination.
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP):
Identification and quantification of chemicals elements.
Measurement of surface charge of nano/microparticles in solution.
Dynamic light scattering (DLS):
Hydrodynamic radius and size distribution of nanoparticles in solution.
Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR):
Characterization of the major functional groups present on the surface of the sample.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy:
Assessing the nature and chemical state of the surface atoms of the nanostructure to depth of 5 nm (4-20 atomic layers).
Fluorescence analysis of samples in solution.
Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID):
Determination of magnetic properties of nanostructures.
Quantitative analysis of analytes.
Total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF):
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical elements in solid and liquid samples.
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA):
Determination of the amount of weight change of a material as a function of increasing temperature in an atmosphere of nitrogen or air.
Mass spectrometry (MS):
Determination of the mass of molecules.